Ampulloclitocybe clavipes: The Ultimate Mushroom Guide
About The Ampulloclitocybe clavipes Mushroom
Ampulloclitocybe clavipes (Clitocybe clavipes) Saprotrophic, but typically found under conifers like pine. Smooth brown funnel-shaped cap with paler margin, decurrent white gills and white to cream spore print, brown stem with bulbous base and attached mycelium. Can forms fairy rings.
Edible, but don’t drink with alcohol or will get a headache or rash. Some field guides list it as Inedible. This is in the Hygrophoraceae family of the Agaricales order.
Other names: Club-footed Clitocybe, Club-foot, Clavate-stalked clitocybe, Clitocybe à pied en massue (French), Hoteishimeji (Japanese), Keulen-Trichterling (German), Knotsvoettrechterzwam (Dutch).
Ampulloclitocybe clavipes Identification
Treated as saprobic by some authors, and as mycorrhizal by others; growing alone, scattered, or gregariously; primarily appearing under conifers, but sometimes reported under hardwoods; originally described from Europe; widely distributed throughout Europe and Asia; in North America widely distributed but apparently absent or very rare in the lower Rocky Mountains and the southwestern United States; also found in Australia.
2–10 cm across; at first flat with a slightly underturned margin, eventually becoming centrally depressed or vase-shaped, with an uplifted margin; smooth, or somewhat rugged over the center; bald; moist or dry; brown to grayish brown—usually darker over the center and lighter towards the margin by maturity.
Running down the stem; close or nearly distant; short-gills frequent; white to creamy, becoming brownish in old age.
2.5–5 cm long; 1–3 cm thick at the base; often bulbous at the bottom, but sometimes more or less equal, especially with age; bald or minutely hairy; often spongy at the base; buff or pale brownish; basal mycelium white.
White; unchanging when sliced.
Odor and Taste
Odor fragrant and fruity—or not distinctive; taste not distinctive.
KOH negative on cap surface.
Spores 6–10 x 3–3.5 µm; ellipsoid to egg-shaped or elongated-ellipsoid, occasionally with a narrowed end; smooth; hyaline in KOH; inamyloid. Basidia 27–36 x 6–7 µm; subclavate; 4-sterigmate. Pseudocystidia scattered as "marginal cells" in some specimens; 22–26 x 10–15 µm; clavate to sphaeropedunculate; smooth; hyaline in KOH. Pileipellis a cutis of elements 5–12 µm wide, smooth, thin-walled, hyaline in KOH; clamp connections present.
Ampulloclitocybe clavipes Look-Alikes
Has a firm-fleshed stem base and smells slightly of bitter almonds.
Can be distinguished by its bulbous stem, deeply decurrent gills, and overall darker color.
Larger and has a darker cap and white gills.
Ampulloclitocybe clavipes Medicinal Properties
Clavilactone B had antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis, B. cereus, Sarcina lutea (50 µg/disc); clavilactone A was only active against B. subtilis at 100 µg/disc (Arnone et al., 1994).
All clavilactones had antifungal activity, as determined using bioautography on Cladosporium cladosporioides and C. cucumerinum with amounts as low as 50 µg per plate (Arnone et al., 1994).
Polysaccharides extracted from the mycelial culture of A. clavipes and administered intraperitoneally into white mice at a dosage of 300 mg/kg inhibited the growth of Sarcoma 180 and Ehrlich solid cancers by 70% and 60%, respectively (Ohtsuka et al., 1973).
Ampulloclitocybe clavipes Taxonomy & Etymology
When it was described in 1801 by Christiaan Hendrick Persoon, this mushroom was given the name Agaricus clavipes, at a rime when most gilled fungi were initially placed in the genus Agaricus. German mycologist Paul Kummer transferred this species to the white-spored genus Clitocybe, and until recently it was generally referred to as Clitocybe clavipes. Then, in 2002, Redhead et al determined by DNA analysis that this mushroom was more closely related to the waxcaps (Clitocybe species), and they transferred it to a newly established monotypic genus, at which point it acquired its currently accepted scientific name Ampulloclitocybe clavipes.
Synonyms of Ampulloclitocybe clavipes include Agaricus clavipes Pers., Clitocybe clavipes (Pers.) P. Kumm., and Clitocybe squamulosoides P.D. Orton.
The genus Ampulloclitocybe may come from ampula-, referring to a flask-like cavity (shaped like the Roma ampulla flasks) and -clitocybe meaning 'with a sloping head'. Mushrooms in this genus have flask-shaped stem bases, and when fully mature the center of the heads or caps are funnelled (sloping downwards from the margin).
The specific epithet clavipes comes from Latin and means 'with a club-shaped foot'; the common name Club Foot is a literal translation of clavipes.
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