Cantharellus tubaeformis: The Ultimate Mushroom Guide
About The Cantharellus tubaeformis Mushroom
Craterellus tubaeformis (formerly Cantharellus tubaeformis) is a small to medium-sized edible mushroom, funnel-shaped, dingy-brown cap that has forked veins instead of gills and a yellowish stem. It grows on moss and is found mostly in conifer bogs.
This diminutive member of the chanterelle clan is recognized by a yellowish-brown, trumpet-shaped, sometimes hollow fruiting body, and blunt-edged widely spaced gills. C. tubaeformis appears well after the start of the mushroom season with peak fruitings in January and February.
There has long been much debate about whether this species belongs in the genus Cantharellus or the genus Craterellus. Recent molecular evidence shows that it belongs in Craterellus. The molecular evidence also indicates that we may not have the "real" Craterellus tubaeformis of Europe and the Eastern United States. This means our west coast species may eventually get a new name. Craterellus neotubaeformis has been suggested as a possible replacement name.
Other names: Funnel Chanterelle, Trumpet Chanterelle, Winter Chanterelle, Winter Craterelle, Yellow-Foot, Yellowlegs.
Cantharellus tubaeformis Identification
Mycorrhizal with conifers; growing alone, gregariously, or in loose clusters in moss or on well-decayed, moss-covered logs in conifer bogs; northern and montane North America (also northern and montane Europe); fall.
2-7 cm wide; more or less convex at first; soon becoming vase-shaped and eventually becoming perforated in the center; with a wavy and irregular margin when mature; bald; sticky or waxy when fresh; dark yellowish-brown to blackish brown, fading to grayish brown or grayish with age; colors sometimes faintly streaked in radial patterns.
Running down the stem; when young with ridges and folds; with age developing well developed false gills that fork frequently and have cross-veins; yellowish to grayish or brownish - or occasionally faintly lilac.
3-9 cm long; 3-8 mm thick; more or less equal; becoming hollow; bald, with a waxy feel; usually orange to orangish-yellow when young, becoming dull yellow, brownish, or orangish; basal mycelium whitish to pale yellow.
Insubstantial; brownish to yellowish.
Odor and Taste
Taste not distinctive; odor not distinctive or slightly fragrant.
Spores 9-11 x 6-8 µ; ellipsoid; smooth; hyaline in KOH, with minutely granular homogeneous contents. Basidia 4-sterigmate; 50-65 µ long. Elements of upper surface cylindric; 2.5-10 µ wide; septate; hyaline to brownish or brown; smooth; with clamp connections.
Cantharellus tubaeformis Look-Alikes
The bright yellow mushroom, usually larger in diameter and squatter; has a solid stem, pale flesh, and a slightly fruity (apricot-like) smell.
Differs in color, and is found only in very wet places.
Has a long, pale stem.
Cantharellus tubaeformis Health Benefits
As a member of the Craterellus genus, C. tubaeformis is packed with the most essential nutrients and minerals needed by the body. One cup of C. tubaeformis has 1.87 mg of iron, 273 mg of potassium, 31 mg of phosphorous, and only 0.63 g of sugar. Other vitamins and minerals found in this mushroom are vitamins B, B12, D, fiber, and copper.
Inflammation in the human body is a series of interactions that may be due as a response to trauma or injury. Polysaccharides extracted from C. tubaeformis are found to have anti-inflammatory properties, thereby boosting the immune system once consumed.
According to a study, Vitamin D2 found in wild C. tubaeformis is more significant compared to button mushrooms from stores. It is an important vitamin D source for people who are allergic to fish or who are following certain diets, such as vegetarianism and veganism. In the long run, taking C. tubaeformis on a daily basis can significantly lower the risk of osteoporosis in the older generation.
Reducing Risk for Diabetes
C. tubaeformis is a great source of fiber. According to the results of McRae’s (2018) meta-analysis on fiber intake and diabetes, daily fiber intake significantly decreases the risk for type 2 diabetes, the chronic medical condition brought about by increased sugar accumulation in the bloodstream due to an unhealthy lifestyle.
C. tubaeformis have significant traces of vitamin B and B12. Such vitamins have a direct positive effect in enhancing brain function. By boosting red blood cells that carry oxygen to the brain, these vitamins cause the central nervous system to work faster, thus, significantly alerts the decision-making process, and improves the overall disposition of the person.
Cantharellus tubaeformis Taxonomy & Etymology
This mushroom was named and described by Elias Magnus Fries in 1821. Its common synonyms include Cantharellus infundibuliformis and Craterellus tubaeformis. In Sweden, where this is a very popular late-season mushroom and much gathered for the pot (it makes great soups), it is known as Trattkanterell.
The generic name Cantharellus is derived from the Latin word cantharus (originally from the Greek 'kantharos') meaning a drinking vessel (usually with handles), a bowl or a chalice. The Greek noun kantharos was applied to (among other things) an ancient Greek clay vessel which, in turn, was so named for its resemblance to a red-tinged scarab beetle of the same name.
The specific epithet tubaeformis means in the shape of a tube (hollow).
Cantharellus tubaeformis Cooking Notes
Try only a little the first time. C. tubaeformis has a nice aroma that is almost identical to the chanterelle. The smell when drying is outstanding. They can be sautéed for truly great flavor but are less interesting when deep-fried. They are often best plain or in ways that showcase their subtle flavor. They reconstitute better than a chanterelle and make a nice mushroom powder that is outstanding for flavoring alfredo, and béchamel based sauces.
Since the flavor is subtle it should only be mixed in certain ways. A cantharellus/craterellus mix is nice. Chicken, pork or fish, rice, pasta, some vegetables, some cheeses, and soups are good choices for recipes using these.
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