Hygrophorus marzuolus: The Ultimate Mushroom Guide
About The Hygrophorus marzuolus Mushroom
Hygrophorus marzuolus is an edible species of fungus in the family Hygrophoraceae. It is known from Asia, Europe, and North America, where it grows on the ground in mixed forests at high elevations.
This species is characterized by the production of a white fruiting body with a black-gray cap and ellipsoidal spores that are 6-8x4-5µm in size.
The species was originally described by Elias Magnus Fries in 1821 as Agaricus marzuolus, and transferred to Hygrophorus in 1893 by Giacomo Bresadola.
Hygrophorus marzuolus mainly forms ectomycorrhiza with coniferous trees of the family Pinaceae, most often with Abies (alba, borisii-regis ) and Picea, but also with Pinus (mugo incl. uncinata, nigra, sylvestris) and Pseudotsuga (France). Only relatively seldom the fungus was found in symbiosis with Fagaceae, especially Fagus sylvatica, in Southern Europe moreover Castanea sativa, Quercus cerris, Q. suber and Q. petraea.
The fungus nearly exclusively occurs in natural or near-natural forests and only rarely in plantations. It has been recorded on calcareus as well as acidic and sandy soils.
Other names: March Mushroom, März-Schneckling, Fungo marzuolo, Dormiente (Switzerland), šťavnačka marcová (Slovakia), ožujka (Serbia), šťavnatka březnovka (Czech Republic), hygrophore de mars (Francce), Wodnicha marcowa (Poland), März-Schneckling (Austria).
Hygrophorus marzuolus Identification
The fruit bodies have broadly convex caps, measuring 2.5–11 cm (1.0–4.3 in) in diameter. Their surfaces are smooth and sticky, with a pale greyish-brown center and darker brown to blackish-grey margin.
The distantly spaced, broad gills have an adnate to the adnexed attachment to the stipe, and two tiers of intervening lamellulae (short gills). The gills are initially white before turning gray to bluish-gray in age.
The whitish stipe measures 3–10 cm (1.2–3.9 in) long by 1–2.5 cm (0.4–1.0 in) thick, and is either equal in width throughout or tapers slightly towards the base. The stipe is smooth except for a few tufts of hairs near the top.
Immediately underneath the cap cuticle, the flesh of the cap is water-soaked; elsewhere in the cap, it is gray-tinted with a sheen, while in the stipe it is dull white.
The spore print is white, whitish, cream. The thin-walled, elliptical spores measure 6.5–8.5 by 4.5–5 µm. The basidia (spore-bearing cells) are narrowly club-shaped, four-spored, and measure 42–55 by 5.4–8.1 µm.
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