Stropharia Rugosoannulata: The Ultimate Mushroom Guide
About The Stropharia Rugosoannulata Mushroom
Stropharia Rugosoannulata is a beautiful edible mushroom easily recognized by its preference for woodchips and other urban habitats, its purple-gray gills and spore print, and its distinctive ring, which is thick, finely lined on the upper side, and radially split or "cogwheeled" on the underside.
Fresh caps are wine red to reddish-brown, but they often fade to yellowish-brown. The red-wine coloring of the caps soon fades to brown and eventually almost white in dry weather, making it more difficult to distinguish this roundhead mushroom from other dull-looking mushrooms of similar size.
Sometimes called King Stropharia and grown commercially in Europe. Miller states that it is not found in natural habitats in North America.
A 2006 study, published in the journal Applied and Environmental Microbiology, found the king stropharia to have the ability to attack the nematode Panagrellus redivivus; the fungus produces unique spiny cells called acanthocytes which can immobilize and digest the nematodes.
Other names: Garden Giant, Wine-cap, Burgundy-cap, Wine-cap Stropharia, Wine-red Stropharia, King Stropharia, Saketsubatake (Japan).
Stropharia Rugosoannulata Identification
Saprobic; growing scattered or gregariously (sometimes in clusters); usually found on woodchips, in gardens, and in other cultivated areas, but sometimes collected along stream beds where spring floods have occurred; spring through fall; in North America widespread and fairly common east of the Great Plains, and occasionally reported in Washington and British Columbia.
4–13 cm; convex at first, becoming broadly convex to nearly flat; sticky when fresh, but soon glossy and dry; bald; wine-red to reddish-brown, fading to yellowish-brown or yellowish; sometimes developing cracks in old age; the margin sometimes hung with ragged partial veil remnants.
Attached to the stem; close or nearly crowded; short-gills frequent; whitish to pale gray at first, becoming purplish gray to purple-black.
8–16 cm long; 1–2 cm thick; equal, or with an enlarged base; dry; bald or finely hairy; white, discoloring yellowish to brownish in age; usually featuring a thick, white to yellowish ring that is finely grooved on its upper surface (and often blackened by spores) and radially split or "cogwheeled" on its underside; base with white mycelial threads.
White; firm; unchanging when sliced.
Dark purple-brown to purplish black.
KOH on cap surface olive green.
Spores 11–15 x 7–9 µm; ellipsoid, with one end slightly truncated for a large pore measuring 1-2 µm across; smooth; thick-walled; yellow-brown in KOH. Basidia 4-sterigmate. Cheilocystidia dimorphic: either 25–45 x 7.5–15 µm, fusoid-ventricose, often becoming rostrate, thin-walled, smooth, hyaline in KOH, often but not always developing globular, refractive inclusions and becoming chrysocystidia—or 35–50 x 12.5–15 µm, widely cylindric to subutriform, thin-walled, smooth (leptocystidia). Pleurocystidia similar to chryso-cheilocystidia. Pileipellis a slightly gelatinized cutis of elements 5–15 µm wide; elements smooth, hyaline to orangish brown in KOH; terminal cells cylindric with rounded apices.
Stropharia Rugosoannulata Look-Alikes
Grows on pine stumps. It is a mushroom of northern Europe and in Britain is recorded only from Scotland. The Pine Roundhead does not have a rugose (wrinkled) stem ring.
Cortinarius Praestans (Goliath Webcap)
A glance at the stem ring is all that is needed to avoid this potential problem.
Stropharia Rugosoannulata Cultivation
You will need to acquire several layers of organic materials and layer them to create optimal conditions. Materials:
Somewhat fresh (less than a year old) woodchips of mixed species, with no more than 50% of the composition being from coniferous species (trees with needles) about two wheelbarrow loads OR a fresh straw bale
5 gallon bucket of sawdust, or shavings
5 gallon bucket of finished compost (optional)
Saw dust spawn from a producer (see our website for a list)
Stropharia will tolerate a wide range of light conditions but seem to grow best in part to full sun or "garden shade" where they are allowed to grow under the shade cast by plants in full sun conditions. Fruiting and maturation of the mushrooms can happen rather quickly, so it is recommended to inoculate beds that are often visited. DO NOT inoculate garden areas that are tilled, instead choose permanent beds of edibles or ornamentals.
Measure out a spot that is approximately 16 square feet of bed space. This is approximately what a 5 lb bag of spawn will inoculate; you can inoculate one continuous section or multiple smaller areas; make sure no inoculation is small than 4 square feet or a quarter bag of spawn.
Inoculation can occur as early as April or as late as September, with spring being the preferred time as it often results in fruiting in the same season.
To inoculate, remove organic matter down to "bare soil". Add about 1/2" of sawdust or wood shavings and spread evenly. Layer the spawn on top of this, breaking it up into fine particles while also leaving some chunks in the bed. On top of this, layer about 4" of woodchips or straw. Soak the bed thoroughly with water.
Stropharia require little maintenance and can live and fruit for many years. In dry seasons water patches as you would plant in a garden. It is best to add 2 – 4" of fresh woodchips or straw in the Fall to provide fresh feedstock and protect the mycelium from damaging frosts. Once a patch has colonized and area for one full season, the mycelium can be divided into multiple handful chunks and spread into other areas of the garden.
It is important to properly identify Stropharia mushrooms before harvesting as many mushrooms can emerge from mulched garden beds.
That said, Stropharia is rather simple to identify with the following characteristics:
A reddish-brown cap that changes from dark to light as the mushroom matures-Gills that begin light black and turn darker as the mushroom matures
A "king crown" ring around the stem
The stem is fibrous and full of air pockets
No noticeable bulge where the mushroom meets the ground
Stropharia Rugosoannulata Taxonomy & Etymology
When in 1922 American botanist William Alphonso Murrill (1869 - 1957) described this mushroom scientifically, drawing on an earlier description of the Wine Roundhead by fellow American William Gilson Farlow (1844 - 1919), he named it Stropharia rugosoannulata. This is still its generally accepted scientific name.
Synonyms of Stropharia rugosoannulata include Stropharia ferrii Bres.
The genus name Stropharia comes from the Greek word strophos meaning a belt, and it is a reference to the stem rings of fungi in this generic grouping.
The specific epithet rugosoannulata comes from the prefix rugoso- meaning wrinkled or creased, and the suffix -annulata meaning 'with a ring'. The radially-wrinkled ring of these mushrooms is therefore the origin of the specific epithet.
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